Many coastal communities around the world have to constantly.

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Important Agreements/ Arbitration/ Judgements

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Indonesia/Australia (1974) Bilateral Agreement

Memorandum of Understanding between Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia regarding the operations of Indonesian traditional fishermen in areas of the Australian exclusive fishing zone and continental shelf
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Agreement relating to cooperation in fisheries, signed at Jakarta on 22 April 1992, and registered by Australia on 8 March 1994
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Eritrea/Yemen (1998)
Permanent Court of Arbitration

Award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the First Stage - Territorial Sovereignty and Scope of the Dispute (9 October 1998)
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Award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the Second Stage- Maritime Delimitation (December 17, 1999)
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In the Eritrea/Yemen case, the Tribunal held in its first decision concerning questions of territorial sovereignty that the traditional fishing regime in the region was to be perpetuated. In particular, the Tribunal held that Yemen was obliged to ensure that, in a loosely defined area around certain specified islands, the traditional fishing regime of free access and enjoyment for fishermen of both countries was preserved. In its second decision on Maritime Delimitation, the Tribunal clarified the above finding by stating that the traditional fishing regime was not an entitlement in common to resources. These tribunal awards, allowed fishermen to fish and conduct ancillary activities according to traditional artisanal patterns.

Sino-Vietnam Fishery Co-operation (2000)
Bilateral Agreement

Agreement on Fishery Co-operation in the Tonkin Gulf between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Fishery Co-operation and Maritime Delimitation (25 December 2000)
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Cayman Islands/Honduras (2001)
Bilateral Agreement

Treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Honduras, concerning the de-limitation of the maritime areas between the Cayman Islands and the Republic of Honduras (4 December 2001)
View: Annex B: Provisions concerning fishing by vessels of the Cayman Islands in the area of Misteri-osa and Rosario Banks.

This agreement drew inspiration from the ingenious concept adopted by the Eritrea/Yemen Awards referred to above by combining its equidistant boundary with a special fishing area within the Honduras EEZ, which allows for the continuation of the historic fishing rights of Cayman fishermen.

Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago (2006)
Permanent Court of Arbitration

Award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the Maritime Delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf between Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago (11 April 2006)
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The tribunal observed that both States had a duty to agree on measures that would ensure the conservation and development of flyingfish stocks. The 2006 Arbitration tribunal views on the Barbaos/Trinidad and Tobago dispute, asked Trinidad to commit for a legally binding agreement to allow Bajan fishermen from Barbados to fish in Trinidad & Tobago's Exclusive Economic Zone. The agreement is yet to be officially signed, though there have been several meetings before the two governments, the last news reports states once the flying fish stock assessments are done by the regional management organization, the agreement would be completed. This agreement would give Barbados access to fisheries within the EEZ of Trinidad and Tobago (subject to the limitations and conditions spelled out in that agreement and to the right and duty of Trinidad and Tobago to conserve and manage the living resources within its jurisdiction).

Malaysia/Singapore (2008)
International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Judgments on Sovereignty over Pedra Branca/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rock and South Ledge (23 May 2008)
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The Court concluded that sovereignty over Pedra Branca/Pulau Batu Puteh belongs to Singapore, while Middle rocks belongs to Malaysia and in the case of South Ledge, it belongs to the State in whose territorial waters it is located. Following this Judgment, Malaysia and Singapore agreed that traditional fishing by both countries will continue beyond 0.5 nautical miles off Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (20 August 2008).

Bangladesh/Myanmar (2009)
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

Dispute concerning delimitation of the maritime boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal

Other Agreements

Kenya/Tanzania (1975)
Bilateral Agreement

Exchange of notes between the United Republic of Tanzania and Kenya concerning the Delimitation of the Territorial Waters Boundary between the two States, (17 December 1975--9 July 1976)



US-Canada Transboundary Resource Sharing Understandings (2003),

The Understanding is a nonbinding, consensus-based process for specifying annual catch recommendations for transboundary Georges Bank groundfish stocks.

International Fisheries Agreement Clarification Act (2010)